To get you started :)
files: Link
difficulty: easy


A stripped binary that compare character by character in a random order, also, the comparison is in an assembly code that it will change the comparison in each iteration in the loop.



$ file unknown                                                                                                                                                                                                     
morph: ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/, for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=1c81eb4bc8b981ed39ef79801d6fef03d4d81056, stripped
The binary get one arguments, that it is the flag and first comparison is the length of the flag:

After this, the binary have two call rax where execute assembly code that it is in the .rodata section, there we can see a character comparison. The character comparison is random, and in each execution will compare the characters in a different order.

As the binary is PIE (Position Independent Executable), we can not know the address before the execution. A little trick is use the debugger to know the address that the debugger will use.

So, now we can to make and script to get all characters comparisons and generate the flag. I have used GDB for this purpose, the script will change the memory with the new characters until the flag is complete.

b *0x0000555555554b95
b *0x0000555555554bc6
set $pos = 0x0
run `python -c 'print "A"*23'`
set $flag = $rdi
x/2i $rip
set $var = $rip+0x3
set *(char *)$rdi=*(char *) $var 
print $rip
set $pos = $pos+0x1
printf "[+] Flag: %s